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This topic describes configuration options to maximize the performance of a target host in a Delphix Engine deployment.

OS-Specific Tuning Recommendations for Oracle Databases

Solaris

When exclusively using Oracle's Direct NFS Feature (dNFS), it is unnecessary to tune the native NFS client. However, tuning network parameters is still relevant and may improve performance.

Tuning the Kernel NFS Client

On systems using Oracle Solaris Zones, the kernel NFS client can only be tuned from the global zone.

On Solaris, by default the maximum I/O size used for NFS read or write requests is 32K.  When Oracle does I/O larger than 32K, the I/O is broken down into smaller requests that are serialized. This may result in poor I/O performance. To increase the maximum I/O size:

  1. As superuser, add to the /etc/system file:

    * For Delphix: change the maximum NFS block size to 1M
    set nfs:nfs3_bsize=0x100000
  2. Run this command:

    # echo "nfs3_bsize/W 100000" | mdb -kw

    It is critical that the above command be executed exactly as shown, with quotations and space. Errors in the command may cause a system panic and reboot.

Tuning TCP Buffer Sizes

On systems using Oracle Solaris Zones, TCP parameters, including buffer sizes, can only be tuned from the global zone or in exclusive-IP non-global zones. Shared-IP non-global zones always inherit TCP parameters from the global zone.

Solaris 10

It is necessary to install a new Service Management Facility (SMF) service that will tune TCP parameters after every boot. These are samples of the files needed to create the service:

FileInstallation location
dlpx-tcptune/lib/svc/method/dlpx-tcptune
dlpx-tune.xml/var/svc/manifest/site/dlpx-tune.xml

 

  1. As superuser, download the files and install in the path listed in the Installation location in the table.
  2. Run the commands:

    # chmod 755 /lib/svc/method/dlpx-tcptune
    # /usr/sbin/svccfg validate /var/svc/manifest/site/dlpx-tune.xml
    # /usr/sbin/svccfg import /var/svc/manifest/site/dlpx-tune.xml
    # /usr/sbin/svcadm enable site/tcptune

Verify that the SMF service ran after being enabled by running the command:

# cat `svcprop -p restarter/logfile tcptune`


You should see output similar to this:

[ May 14 20:02:02 Executing start method ("/lib/svc/method/dlpx-tcptune start"). ]
Tuning TCP Network Parameters
tcp_max_buf adjusted from 1048576 to 16777216
tcp_cwnd_max adjusted from 1048576 to 4194304
tcp_xmit_hiwat adjusted from 49152 to 4194304
tcp_recv_hiwat adjusted from 128000 to 16777216
[ May 14 20:02:02 Method "start" exited with status 0. ]
Solaris 11

As superuser

Run the following commands:

# ipadm set-prop -p max_buf=16777216 tcp
# ipadm set-prop -p _cwnd_max=4194304 tcp
# ipadm set-prop -p send_buf=4194304 tcp
# ipadm set-prop -p recv_buf=16777216 tcp

 

Linux/Redhat/CentOs

Tuning the Kernel NFS Client

In Linux, the number of simultaneous NFS requests is limited by the Remote Procedure Call (RPC) subsystem. The maximum number of simultaneous requests defaults to 16. Maximize the number of simultaneous requests by changing the kernel tunable sunrpc.tcp_slot_table_entries value to 128.  

RHEL4 through RHEL5.6

 

  1. As superuser, run the following command to change the instantaneous value of simultaneous RPC commands:

    # sysctl -w sunrpc.tcp_slot_table_entries=128
  2. Edit the file /etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf.dist and change the line:

    install sunrpc /sbin/modprobe --first-time --ignore-install sunrpc && { /bin/mount -t rpc_pipefs sunrpc /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs > /dev/null 2>&1 || :;

    to

    install sunrpc /sbin/modprobe --first-time --ignore-install sunrpc && { /bin/mount -t rpc_pipefs sunrpc /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs > /dev/null 2>&1 ; /sbin/sysctl -w sunrpc.tcp_slot_table_entries=128; }

    Improper changes to the modprobe.conf.dist file may disrupt use of NFS on the system. Check with your system administrator or operating system vendor for assistance. Save a copy of the modprobe.conf.dist in a directory other than /etc/modprobe.d before starting.

RHEL 5.7 through RHEL 6.2
  1. As superuser, run the following command to change the instantaneous value of simultaneous RPC commands:

    # sysctl -w sunrpc.tcp_slot_table_entries=128
  2. If it doesn't already exist, create the file /etc/modprobe.d/rpcinfo with the following contents:

    options sunrpc tcp_slot_table_entries=128
RHEL 6.3 onwards

Beginning with RHEL 6.3, the number of RPC slots is dynamically managed by the system and does not need to be tuned. Although the sunrpc.tcp_slot_table_entries tuneable still exists, it has a default value of 2, instead of 16 as in prior releases. The maximum number of simultaneous requests is determined by the new tuneable,  sunrpc.tcp_max_slot_table_entries, which has a default value of 65535.
 

Tuning TCP Buffer Sizes

  1. As superuser, add or replace the following entries in /etc/sysctl.conf.
    Note: the *rmem, *wmem parameter values are minimum recommendations, so no change is needed if already set to higher values.

    net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 1
    net.ipv4.tcp_sack = 1
    net.ipv4.tcp_window_scaling = 1
    net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096 16777216 16777216
    net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096 4194304 16777216
  2. Run the command:

    /sbin/sysctl -p

IBM AIX®

Tuning the Kernel NFS Client

On AIX, by default the maximum I/O size used for NFS read or write requests is 64K. When Oracle does I/O larger than 64K, the I/O is broken down into smaller requests that are serialized. This may result in poor I/O performance. IBM can provide an Authorized Program Analysis Report (APAR) that allows the I/O size to be configured to a larger value.

  1. Determine the appropriate APAR for the version of AIX you are using:

    AIX VersionAPAR Name
    6.1IV24594
    7.1IV24688
  2. Check if  the required APAR is already installed by running this command:

    # /usr/sbin/instfix -ik IV24594


    If the APAR is installed, you will see a message similar to this:

    All filesets for IV24594 were found.


    If the APAR is not yet installed, you will see a message similar to this:

    There was no data for IV24594 in the fix database.
  3. Download and install the APAR, as necessary. To find the APARs, use the main search function at http://www.ibm.com/us/en/, specifying the name of the APAR you are looking for from step 1.

    A system reboot is necessary after installing the APAR

  4. Configure the maximum read and write sizes using the commands below:

    # nfso -p -o nfs_max_read_size=524288
    # nfso -p -o nfs_max_write_size=524288
  5. Confirm the correct settings using the command:

    # nfso -L nfs_max_read_size -L nfs_max_write_size


    You should see an output similar to this:

    NAME CUR DEF BOOT MIN MAX UNIT TYPE
     DEPENDENCIES
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    nfs_max_read_size 512K 64K 512K 512 512K Bytes D
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    nfs_max_write_size 512K 64K 512K 512 512K Bytes D
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Tuning Delayed TCP Acknowledgements

By default AIX implements a 200ms delay for TCP acknowledgements. However, it has been found that disabling this behaviour can provide significant performance improvements.

To disable delayed ACKs on AIX the following command can be used:

# /usr/sbin/no -o tcp_nodelayack=1

To make the change permanent use:

# /usr/sbin/no -o -p tcp_nodelayack=1 

HP-UX

Tuning the Kernel NFS Client

On HP-UX, by default the maximum I/O size used for NFS read or write requests is 32K. When Oracle does I/O larger than 32K, the I/O is broken down into smaller requests that are serialized. This may result in poor I/O performance.  

  1. As superuser, run the following command:

    # /usr/sbin/kctune nfs3_bsize=1048576
  2. Confirm the changes have occurred and are persistent by running the following command and checking the output:

    # grep nfs3 /stand/system
    tunable nfs3_bsize      1048576

Tuning TCP Buffer Sizes

  1. As superuser, edit the /etc/rc.config.d/nddconf file, adding or replacing the following entries:

    TRANSPORT_NAME[0]=tcp
    NDD_NAME[0]=tcp_recv_hiwater_def
    NDD_VALUE[0]=16777216
    #
    TRANSPORT_NAME[1]=tcp
    NDD_NAME[1]=tcp_xmit_hiwater_def
    NDD_VALUE[1]=4194304

    In this example, the array indices are shown as 0 and 1.In the actual configuration file, each index used must be strictly increasing, with no missing entries. See the comments at the beginning of /etc/rc.config.d/nddconf for more information.

  2. Run the command:

    /usr/bin/ndd -c
  3. Confirm the settings:

    # ndd -get /dev/tcp tcp_recv_hiwater_def
    16777216
    # ndd -get /dev/tcp tcp_xmit_hiwater_def
    4194304

OS-Specific Tuning Recommendations for SQL Server Databases

These are our recommendations for Windows iSCSI initiator configuration. Please note that the parameters below will affect all applications running on the Windows target host, so you should make sure that the following recommendations do not contradict best practices for other applications running on the host.

For targets running Windows Server, the iSCSI initiator driver timers can be found at: HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Class\{4D36E97B-E325-11CE-BFC1-08002BE10318}\<Instance Number>\<Parameters> . Please see How to Modify the Windows Registry on the Microsoft Support site for details about configuring registry settings.

Registry ValueTypeDefaultRecommendedComments
MaxTransferLengthREG_DWORD

262144

131072This controls the maximum data size of an I/O request. A value of 128K is optimal for the Delphix Engine as it reduces segmentation of the packets as they go through the stack.

MaxBurstLength

REG_DWORD

262144

131072This is the negotiated maximum burst length. 128K is the optimal size for the Delphix Engine.

MaxPendingRequests

REG_DWORD255512This setting controls the maximum number of outstanding requests allowed by the initiator. At most this many requests will be sent to the target before receiving response for any of the requests.
MaxRecvDataSegmentLengthREG_DWORD65536 131072This is the negotiated MaxRecvDataSegmentLength.